Unmute
Mute

The exhibition was established with assistance from the claims conference, Inc.; the Israel Ministry of Culture and Sport, and the Grossman family (Toronto).




1. Alfred (Alf) Szwarcbaum a one-man rescue organization

1/1 From: Ella writes from Budapest To: Alfred Szwarcbaum in Lausann

a. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection | b. Bedzin town square, Massuah Institute collection | c. Lausanne, Switzerland. Wiki Commons


1/2 From: Hanke and H. Kurland, Lwow ghetto To: Alf Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, January 28, 1942

a. Lwow ghetto, 1942. Photo courtesy Holocaust Research Project | b. Lviv Holocaust memorial, Nahalat Yitzhak cemetery. Photo: David Shai, Wiki Commons


1/3 From: Nathan Schwalb, Geneva To: Alfred Szwarcbaum, Lausanne

a. Nathan Schwalb, Geneva. Massuah Institute collection | b. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection | c. View over the roofs of Lausanne, Switzerland, Wikimedia Commons, courtesy Christian Mehlführer


1/4 From: Tobiasz Gutman of Bedzin To: Alfred Szwarcbaum in Lausanne

a. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection | b. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection | c. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection


1/5 From: Guta Kaufmann, Kielce ghetto To: Alfred Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Internees in Kielce ghetto, 1941. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | b. Kielce ghetto resident card, 1941. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | c.Kielce ghetto resident card, 1941. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | d. Kielce ghetto resident card, 1941. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain


1/6 מFrom: Sigmund Gepner writes from Aflag POW camp VIIA, Murnau, Germany To: Alfred Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Aflag POW camp VIIA, Murnau, Germany, The Forgotten Pictures Project,1940's http://hollow.one.free.fr/murnau/ | b. a. Aflag POW camp VIIA, Murnau, Germany, The Forgotten Pictures Project,1940's http://hollow.one.free.fr/murnau/


1/7 From: P.M. Kacan writes from Lisbon, Portugal To: Alfred Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. A group of Jewish refugees has just reached the Lisbon railroad station, 1941. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy Milton Koch |b. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection | c. Lisbon city, Wikimedia Commons


1/8 From: Napieralski, Kussnacht Am Rigi, To: A. Szwarcbaum, Lausanne

a. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection | b. View over the roofs of Lausanne, Switzerland, Wikimedia Commons, courtesy Christian Mehlführer | c. Astrid-Kapelle in Küssnacht am Rigi (Schweiz), Wikimedia Commons, courtesy Grace Kelly


1/9 From: George Grossberg, Bex, Switzerland To: Alfred Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Orphaned Jewish Holocaust survivors laugh during a performance at the Lindenfels center for DP children, April 21, 1948, Lindenfels [Frankfurt am Main], Germany. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy National Archives and Records Administration, College Park | b. Young Jewish DPs await transportation to Naples en route to Palestine, July 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park | c. Street in Bex, Switzerland, Wikimedia Commons, courtesy Jean Housen


1/10 From: Molczadski, Rosmarin, Londer, St. Margareten To: A. Szwarcbaum, Lausanne

a. Bergen-Belsen shortly after the liberation, 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | b. Group photo of survivors from Bedzin, Bergen-Belsen, 1945. Massuah Institute collection | c. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection




2. Escape at the beginning of the war

2/1 From: Nathan Schneuer, Australia To: W.L. Getzler, Haifa

a. Massuah Institute collection | b. Melbourne in the 1930s--WikiShare


2/2 From: Tomkiewicz writes from Kagen, Uzbekistan To: His brother Benjamin in Jerusalem

a. Kagen, Bukhara District, Uzbekistan--WikiShare


2/3 From: Avraham Kromolowski writes from Arkhangelsk District, USSR To: Alfred Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Sutyagin House, Arkhangelsk, Russia: Wikimedia commons, courtesy of SK


2/4 מFrom: H. Rosbard, Hohenburg (Wyszogrod) To: Haim Milstein,Vilna, Lithuania

a. Members of Hanoar Hazoni celebrate the seder in Vilna after having escaped from Poland, 1940. Massuah Institute collection | b. Haim Milstein at Nitzanim, 1951. Massuah Institute collection


2/5 From: Yehoshua Glaubermann, Dzhambul, Kazakhstan To: comrades in the Hanoar Hazioni administration in Palestine

a. Directors of the Pinsk branch of Hanoar Hazioni before World War II. Second from right, standing: Yehoshua Glaubermann (Gilboa). Seated in middle: Moshe Kolodny (Kol). Massuah Institute collection | b. Moshe Kolodny (Kol) as a young counselor for Hanoar Hazioni. Pinsk, 1930s. Massuah Institute collection | c. The Dark Years of Soviet Jewry, by Yehoshua Gilboa, written pursuant to the author's many years as a Prisoner of Zion in the USSR


2/6 From: The Jakubowskis of Warsaw To: Their son, Dr. Abraham Jakubowski, in Sverdlovsk Oblast in the USSR

a. German police patrol the border area between the Aryan and Jewish quarters before the sealing of the Warsaw ghetto. The sign in German and Polish reads "Quarantined area. Only through traffic is permitted." | b.Mt. Irmel, Sverdlovsk district, USSR--WikiShare


2/7 From: Poldek Spiegelman, Assino, USSR To: Alf Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Assino, USSR--WikiShare | b. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection


2/8 From: Sheine Olknicki, Svislotch, Belarus To: her brother, Moshe Olknicki

a. Soviet propaganda poster for the kolkhoz--WikiShare | b. Svislotch in the summer--WikiShare | c. Svislotch in the winter--WikiShare


2/9 From: Rachel Rimmer, escaping to the east To: Her sister Shulamit at Kibbutz Mizra, Palestine

a. A church in a suburb of Kyiv. Photo: Michal Broshi | b. "Jewish Life" exhibition at a museum in Kyiv. Photo: Michal Broshi | c. View of the destruction of Baranovichi, July 1944 Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy


2/10 From: Abram Liewer writes from Vilna, Lithuania To: Alf Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. General view of Bedzin, Poland, in the early 20th century. Massuah Institute collection | b. Central church of Vladivostok, Russia, 2000--WikiShare




3. The visas affair

3/1 From: Benjamin Graubart, an inmate at the Tittmoning camp for foreign nationals

a.The Graubarts at home in Bedzin, Poland, before the war. From the right: Bemjamin, Dov, Tussia, and Anna. Massuah Institute collection Narration: Yona Elian


3/2 From: Jacek Walenti, Bedzin To: Motek Krzeczewo, Tittmoning camp for foreign nationals.

a. Tittmoniong fortress, where a camp for male foreign nationals was established. Massuah Institute collection | b. Hundreds of passport photos along with dates of birth were sent by Polish Jews to rescue organizations in the hope that they could be used for the issue of entrance visas to South American countries. Massuah Institute collection


3/3 From: Arie Liewer, camp for foreign nationals at Tittmoning To: Andrzeja, Bedzin

a. Arie Liewer, Massuah Institute collection | b.Arie Liewer (center, coat over his shoulders) in Srodula ghetto, 1940-41. Massuah Institute collection


3/4 From: Benjamin Graubart, Tittmoning camp To: Anna Graubart, Laufen camp

a. The Graubarts at home in Bedzin, Poland, before the war. From the right: Bemjamin, Dov, Tussia, and Anna. Massuah Institute collection | b. The Graubart family: Anna, Tussia, Dov & Benjamin. Massuah Institute collection | c. Tittmoniong fortress, where a camp for male foreign nationals was established. Massuah Institute collection


3/5 From: Szymon Josef Jisrael, Chaya Epstein, and Jadzia, Bedzin To: Alfred Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Photo attached to a letter from an applicant for a South american entrance visa. Massuah Institute collection


3/6 From: B. Gold of Bedzin, Poland To: Alfred Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection | b. Hundreds of passport photos along with dates of birth were sent by Polish Jews to rescue organizations in the hope that they could be used for the issue of entrance visas to South American countries. Massuah Institute collection


3/7 From: Arie Liewer, Tittmoning camp To: Marjanna Kissel, Bedzin, Poland

a. Arie Liewer, Massuah Institute collection | b.Arie Liewer (center, coat over his shoulders) in Srodula ghetto, 1940-41. Massuah Institute collection


3/8 From: Nathan Schwalb, Geneva To: Hadasa Krzesiwo, camp for women foreign nationals at Liebenau, Germany

a. Nathan Schwalb in Geneva, Massuah Institute collection | b. View of Geneva, Wikicommons


3/9 From: Michael Lasker, Laufen POW camp, Germany To:Chana Lasker, who is interned in the women's and children's camp in Liebenau, Germany

a. Jakob Lichtenstein's Honduras entrance visa, 1943. Only the first group of visa recipients managed to survive


3/10 Netty From: Wachtel, Vittel concentration camp, France To: her brother, Chaskel Wachtel, Salzburg

a. Mass arrest of Jews in Paris, 1941. Bundsarchiv, public domain




4. Correspondence with ghettos

4/1 From: Abraham Grünspan, Lodz ghetto, Poland To: J.D. Grünspan, Lwow, Lithuania

a. The photographer Mendel Grossman and his brother, Lodz ghetto. Massuah Institute collection | b. Entrance gate to Lodz ghetto. Massuah Institute collection | c. Mailbox in Lodz ghetto. Massuah Institute collection


4/2 From: Dr. Szlomo Wajnziher, Bedzin ghetto, Poland To: Alfred Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection | b. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection | c. Dr. Szlomo Wajnziher, from Pinqas Bedzin | d. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection


4/3 From: Frieda Lustig, Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia To: Her mother, Hedwig Bloch, Lucarno, Switzerland

a. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Ivan Vojtech Fric Jews wearing yellow stars walk along a street in Theresienstadt | b. Sleeping bunks in Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia. Photo: Hans Weingartz, August 2005, Wikimedia Commons | c. Entrance to the "Little Fortress," Theresienstadt. Photo: Hans Weingartz, August 2005, Wikimedia Commons


4/4 From: Shimon Fürstenberg, Warsaw ghetto, Poland To: Alfred Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Warsaw ghetto: a German policeman inspects the papers of a Jewish cyclist, 1940-41. United States | b. Warsaw ghetto, 1941. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, public domain | c. Warsaw ghetto, 1942. Bundsarchive, public domain | d. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection


4/5 From: Mira Davidson, Hodel ghetto, Poland To: Her uncle, Esteban Hönigsfeld, Madrid, Spain

a. Esteban Hönigsfeld (from left) with his sister and brother, who together migrated from Poland to Spain. Massuah Institute collection | b. The Hönigsfelds and the Adlers in Puławy, Poland. Mira, the correspondent, is the girl standing first from left. Massuah Institute collection | c. Puławy, Lublin District, Poland: hometown of the Hönigsfeld family. Massuah Institute collection


4/6 From: Noach Wozanski, Lodz ghetto, Poland To: Taube, Czernigow, Ukraine

a. Mail arrives in Lodz ghetto. Massuah Institute collection | b. Main street in Lodz ghetto, 1940-41. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, public domain | c. Assembly in Lodz ghetto, 1942. Massuah Institute collection


4/7 From: A. Berghammer of Sweden To: Selma Grünwald, Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakis

a. Main street in Theresienstadt, Jan. 20, 1944. Photographer: Ivan Vojtech Fric , United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, public domain | b. Jewish refugees being smuggled from Denmark to Sweden, 1943. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, public domain | c.Sleeping bunks in Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia. Photo: Hans Weingartz, August 2005, Wikimedia Commons


4/8 From: Dawid Liewer, Bedzin ghetto, Poland To: His brother Arie Liewer, Tittmoning camp, Germany

a. Arie Liewer (fifth from right, wearing a coat) with comrades in the Hanoar Hazioni movement, Srodula ghetto, Poland, 1940-41. Massuah Institute collection | b. Arie Liewer, Encyclopedia of Pioneers and Builders of the Yishuv, ed. David Tidhar, 1940s | c. Dawid Liewer, from Pinqas Bedzin


4/9 From: Cesia Rosen, Warsaw ghetto To: Her sister Rosia Hönigsfeld, Madrid

a. Children and adults wait their turn to receive food at a public kitchen for orthodox Jews located at 21 Nalewki St. about half a year before the establishment of the Warsaw ghetto.United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Zydowski Instytut Historyczny imienia Emanuela Ringelbluma | b. The Hönigsfeld women before the war, Puławy, Poland. Seated on left: the correspondent, Cesia. Massuah Institute collection | c. The Hönigsfelds who emigrated to Spain before the war: Benjamin, Rosa, and Esteban. Massuah Institute collection | d. A nurse treats a child in the infirmary of the children's home at 127 Leszno St. -- 1940, before the establishment of the Warsaw ghetto. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, public domain


4/10 From: Zundel Kupicki, Lublin ghetto, Poland To: His niece, Fela Fischbein, in Iwonicz, Poland

a. Lublin ghetto, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, public domain | b. Lublin ghetto, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, public domain




5. Correspondence with Jews in concentration and extermination camps

5/1 From: Rudolf Solomon,Dachau concentration camp, Germany To: His mother, Hedwig Solomon, Wattensheid, Germany

a. Photograph of Rudolf Solomon's ID card, February 29, 1939, Massuah Institute collection | b. Photograph of Rudolf Solomon's ID card, February 29, 1939, Massuah Institute collection | c. Dachau concentration camp, Massuah Institute collection


5/2 From: Sara Ehrlich, Bedzin To: Her daughter Bronja Schaffel in the Schazler camp, Sudetenland

a. Women liberated from a slave-labor camp near Lodz at the end of the war. They are wearing "Ostarbeiter" badges, the word Ost denoting East. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | B. Narration: Yona Elian


5/3 From: Sara Ehrlich, Bedzin To: Her daughter, Bronja Schaffel, at the Ober Alstadt camp in the Sudetenland

a. Women liberated from a slave-labor camp near Lodz at the end of the war. They are wearing "Ostarbeiter" badges, the word Ost denoting East. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain


5/4 From: Solomon Baruch Grünfeld, The Majdanek concentration camp To: Mrs. Dralek, Lublin

a. Slave labor at Majdanek, October 1941-July 1944. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | b. Watchtower at Majdanek, Wiki Commons


5/5 From: Paula Cohen Bloc, Westerbork, Netherlands To: Her family in Amsterdam

a. Watchtower and monument to the victims at Westerbork. Wiki Commons | b. A new transport of prisoners reaches the Westerbork camp, 1942. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | c. Sketch of the Westerbork camp. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain


5/6 From: Josef Geltner, Sachsenhausen To: His parents

a. Prisoners in the Sachsenhausen. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | b. Barbed-wire fence encases the Sachsenhausen camp. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | c. Prisoners in the Sachsenhausen. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain


5/7 From: Alex Sakowski, Auschwitz To: Krysie

a. Prisoners gather at the fence on liberation day, Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | b. Entrance gate to the Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | c. Prisoners doing construction work at the Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain


5/8 From: Elsa Frischmann, The Birkenau concentration and extermination camp To: Her aunt, Hedwig Richter,in Vyhne, Slovakia

a. Jewish women from Subcarpathian Rus, selected for slave labor at Auschwitz-Birkenau, march toward their barracks after disinfection and headshaving, May 1944. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | b. Jewish women and children from Subcarpathian Rus, selected for death at Auschwitz-Birkenau, walk toward the gas chambers, May 1944. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain


5/9 From: Betty Lion, The concentration camp in Gurs, France To: RELICO, a relief and rescue orgaqnization in Geneva

a. Expulsion of Jews from Paris to concentration camps elsewhere in France, May 1941. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | b.Mass roundup of Jews in Paris, 1941. Bundsarchiv, public domain | c. Mass roundup of Jews in Paris, 1941. Bundsarchiv, public domain | d. Memorial at Camp de Gurs, Wiki Commons


5/10 From: Charlotte Wachs, The Birkenau concentration and extermination camp To: Her sister, Hamajda Ignatz, Budapest

a. Jewish women from Subcarpathian Rus, selected for slave labor at Auschwitz-Birkenau, march toward their barracks after disinfection and headshaving, May 1944. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain | b. Jewish women and children from Subcarpathian Rus, selected for death at Auschwitz-Birkenau, walk toward the gas chambers, May 1944. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, public domain




6. Coded messages

6/1 From: Jakob Rosenberg (Jozek), Budapest To: "His uncle" (Alf Szwarcbaum)

a. Moving to a house marked with a yellow Star of David, Budapest. Courtesy The Holocaust History Project | b. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection | c. Hungarian police arrest Jewish resister, Robert Mandel, in Budapest Hungary, Dec 1944 , Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park Copyright: Public Domain


6/2 From: Jakob Rosenberg (Jozek) To: Alf Szwarcbaum ("Dear David"), Lausanne

a. Arrow Cross Party members execute Jews along the banks of the Danube River. Budapest, Hungary, 1944. National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Md. | b. Bogus Hungarian ID card of Jakob Rosenberg. Massuah Institute collection | c. Alfred Szwarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection | d. A World War II propaganda poster for the anti-semitic Hungarian Arrow Cross Party. The Hungarian text reads "Azért is", which means "Despite it all". Arrow Cross Party, between 1935 and 1945.


6/3 From: David Liewer, Bedzin, Poland To: Arie Liewer, Tittmoning

a. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection | b. Arie Liewer with movement comrades in Środula ghetto (with grey jacket over his shoulders), 1940-41. Massuah Institute collection | c. David Liewer, Massuah Institute collection


6/4 From: David Liewer and Miriam in Budapest To: Arie Liewer in Camp Tuttmoning

a. Arie Liewer. Source: Pinkas Bedzin | b. David Liewer, Massuah Institute collection | c. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection


6/5 From: Sarah Landau, Borysław, Poland To: Peretz Wang, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Yahrtsayt (anniversary memorial assembly) for the Borysław community at a DP camp in Germany, 1946. Massuah Institute collection | B. Narration: Yona Elian


6/6 From: Erna, Eva, and others at the Grünberg labor camp, Poland To: Arie (Arian) Liewer at the Tittmoning camp, where foreign nationals were interned )

a. Arie Liewer with movement comrades in Środula ghetto (with grey jacket over his shoulders), 1940-41. Massuah Institute collection | b. Entrance gate to Gross-Rosen; Grünberg was one of its satellite camps. WikiShare


6/7 From: Salomon Lerner, Bedzin To: Aharon Gafner in Tittmoning

a. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection | b. Salomon Lerner, Massuah Institute collection | c. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection


6/8 From: Jacek Walenti, Bedzin, Poland To: Motek Krzeczewo at the Tittmoning camp for foreign nationals

a. Illustration of Tittmoning Fortress on a New Years greeting card sent by the prisoner Benjamin Graubart to his wife, Hanna, at the Liebenau camp, Massuah Institute collection | b. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection | c. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection


6/9 From: Jakob Wolf Krzeczewo, Bedzin To: His brother Motek Krzeczewo, Tittmoning

a. Bedzin ghetto, Massuah Institute collection | b.Jewish men set out for slave labor, Bedzin ghetto. Massuah Institute collection


6/10 From: Benjamin Graubart and Michael Lasker, Tittmoning camp To: Hanke, Liebenau camp

a. The Graubarts at home in Bedzin, Poland, before the war. From the right: Bemjamin, Dov, Tussia, and Anna. Massuah Institute collection | b. The Graubart family: Anna, Tussia, Dov & Benjamin. Massuah Institute collection




7. Correspondence via the Red Cross

7/1 rom: Red Cross, Geneva To: Sanio Tannenbaum, Tel Yitzhak, Palestine

a. The Tannenbaums. Standing: Sanio (on right) and Fiszko; seated in foreground: their parents. Lwow, Lithuania, 1930s. Massuah Institute collection | b. Fiszko Tannenbaum before the war in Lwow, Lithuania. Massuah Institute collection | c. Fiszko Tannenbaum before the war in Lwow, Lithuania. Massuah Institute collection


7/2 From: Cecylia Jampel, Lwow, Lithuania, under general German occupation (the Generalgouvernement) To: Baruch Jampel at Kibbutz Tel Yitzhak (of Hanoar Hazioni), Palestine

a. Michael Jampel of Lwow, brother of Baruch (Sigo) Jampel, perished along with his parents. Massuah Institute collection | b. Baruch (Sigo) Jampel with comrades in Hanoar Hazioni, Lwow, 1930s. Massuah Institute collection | c.Baruch (Sigo) Jampel at Kibbutz Tel Yitzhak, 1930s, Massuah Institute Collection | d.Baruch (Sigo) Jampel, Tel Yitzhak,Jampel Family Collection


7/3 From: Itziu Hercig (Yitzhak Artsi), Bucharest, Romania To: Mischa Kolodny, Tel Aviv, via the Red Cross in Romania

a. Yitzhak Artsi (third from right) with comrades in Hanoar Hazioni, Bucharest, 1930s. Massuah Institute Collection | b. Moshe Kol (middle row, second from left) with comrades in Hanoar Hazioni, Pinsk, 1930s, Massuah Institute collection | c. Yitzhak Artsi and Moshe Kol at Independent Liberal Party assembly, 1960s. Massuah Institute Collection | d. The great Sephardi synagogue in Bucharest, destroyed in a pogrom on January 22, 1941. Wiki Commons


7/4 From: Chaim Milsztein (Haim Milstein), Giv'at ha-Ma'apilim, Herzliya To: Chaim Szlojme Gefilhaus, Dęblin, Lublin District, Poland

a. Chaim Milsztein (Haim Milstein) at Nitzanim, 1951, Massuah collection | b. Members of Hanoar Hazioni celebrate the seder after having fled from Poland to Lithuania. Vilna, 1940, Massuah collection


7/5 From: Chaim Szlojme Gefilhaus, Dęblin, Lublin District To: Chaim Milsztein, Giv'at ha-Ma'apililm, Herzliya

a. Chaim Milsztein (Haim Milstein) at Nitzanim, 1951, Massuah collection | b. Members of Hanoar Hazioni celebrate the seder after having fled from Poland to Lithuania. Vilna, 1940, Massuah collection


7/6 From: Esti, Benny, Nurit, and Sara, in Jerusalem To: Abraham Bystric (Father), Mother, Jolan, Nandi, and Izák, in Spiš N. Ves, Slovakia

א. גירוש יהודים בסלובקיה, 1942 באדיבות Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team | ב.גירוש של יהודים בסלובקיה, סטופקוב, צ'כיה, 21 במאי 1942, באדיבות a.Deportation of Slovak Jews. The victims wear tags and are escorted by Slovak guards. Czechoslovakia, ca. 1942. Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team, www.HolocaustResearchProject.org | b.Deportation of Slovak Jews. Stropkov, Czechoslovakia, May 21, 1942. Courtesy of the Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team, www.HolocaustResearchProject.org


7/7 From: Abraham Bystric (Father) Mother, Jolan, Nandi, and Izák, in Spiš N. Ves, Slovakia To: Esti, Benny, Nurit, and Sara, in Jerusalem

a. Slave labor at Novaki labor camp, Slovakia, 1943-44. Courtesy Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team, www.HolocaustResearchProject.org | b. Hlinka Guards watch over Novaki labor camp, 1943-44. Courtesy Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team, www.HolocaustResearchProject.org


7/8 From: Chawa Berman of 11 Alfassi St., Jerusalem To: Nomi Wachockier, Warsaw

a. Jews in the Warsaw ghetto awaiting their turn in the soup kitchen, 1941. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy Archiwum Dokumentacji Mechanicznej, public domain | b. Jews are gathered in large numbers in a public square in the Warsaw ghetto, 1941. Photographer: Tomasz Praznowski, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Interpress, Warsaw, public domain


7/9 From: Joseph Arditty of Haifa, Palestine To: His family in Salonika, Greece

a. Jews of Salonika rounded up in the town square, July 1942. Bundsarchiv, public domain. | b. Public humiliation of Jews in Salonika, July 1942. Bundsarchiv, public domain


7/10 From: Bella in Poznan To: Ferenio

a. German soldiers in Poznan, October 1939. Bundsarchiv, public domain | b. Poznan town hall, destroyed in Allied bombardments, 1945. Bundsarchiv, public domain




8. Correspondence with Jewish soldiers

8/1 From: Moshe Feldman, prisoner number 4540, Stalag VIII B To: Mischa Kolodny, Tel Aviv

a. POW orchestra at Stalag VIII B, Lamsdorf, Silesia, 1943-44. Massuah Institute collection


8/2 From: Salek Frankel, Voroshilovgrad, Ukraine To: Abraham Jakubowski Koemoyevo, Russia

a. Stamp commemorating the Red Army's war against Nazi Germany, Wiki Commons | b. Memorial to Red Army soldiers who fell in combat against the Germans, Voroshilovgrad (Lugans'k), Ukraine. Wiki Commons


8/3 From: Abraham Kaplan, a soldier in the Jewish Brigade, Antwerp To: His wife in Kefar Sava, Palestine

a. Abraham Kaplan (standing, first from left) with comrades in the Jewish Brigade, Palestine, 1945-1947. Massuah Institute collection | b. Abraham Kaplan and his son, Palestine, 1945-1946. Massuah Institute collection | C. Abraham Kaplan, a member of the Jewish Brigade with his wife (on left) and his sister, Palestine, 1945-1947. Massuah Institute collection


8/4 From: Arnold Fastman, POW camp in Italy To: His parents, Hadera, Palestine

a. Prisoners of war at Camp 57, Gruppignano, Italy, 1941. Courtesy of Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand | b. Prisoners of war at Camp 57, Gruppignano, Italy, 1941. Courtesy of Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand | c. Prisoners of war, Camp 75, Bari, Italy, 1942-1943. Courtesy of Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand


8/5 From: Josef, a soldier in the Polish army To: Zvi Melnicer, Haifa, Palestine

a. Zygmund Lymon, a soldier in the Free Polish Army on Soviet soil, Wroniki, 1944. Massuah Institute collection


8/6 From: Ben Zion, serving in the Red Army To: Mischa Kolodny (Moshe Kol), Palestine, via the Jewish Agency in London

a. Decorated Jewish soldier in the Soviet army. Massuah Institute collection. | b. Stamp commemorating the Red Army's war against Nazi Germany, Wiki Commons


8/7 From: Sasha, a soldier in the Red Army To: His family, somewhere in the Soviet Union

a. A Jewish soldier in the Red Army in WWII. Massuah Institute collection | b. Assault units of the 62nd Soviet army battle the Germans in Stalingrad,1943 , Photographer: Georgy Zelma, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park , Public Domain


8/8 From: Baruch Przenica, a second lieutenant in the Polish army To: His friends Gecle and Shoshana, Palestine

a. Zygmund Lymon, a soldier in the Free Polish Army, 1944. Massuah Institute collection


8/9 From: P.Y. Wielenski, a soldier in the Soviet Army To: The director of postal services in Jerusalem

a. W Robertson and Russian A. Sylashko embrace in front of sign that reads, East Meets West, after the American and Soviet armies linked up. Germany, April 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,Washington, Public domain | b. Memorial to Jewish soldiers in the Red Army who fell in WWII, military cemetery, Jerusalem. Photo: Dr. Avishai Teichner, Pikiwiki


8/10 From: Correspondence between the POW Maurycy Bergman (Oflag XII A) in Germany To: His relatives, Ukraine

a. Soviet POWs sit on their bunks shortly after their liberation by the U.S. Ninth Army. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park , Public Domain | b. A group of Soviet POWs share rations in the newly liberated Hemer POW camp. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park , Public Domain | c. Collection of everyday items of Polish prisoners from the Oflag VII-A Murnau, The Polish Army Museum, Wiki - share




9. Correspondence with members of youth movements

9/1 From: Jozek Zilazo (Jakob Rosenberg) of Mohacs, Hungary To: Alf Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Alfred Swarcbaum, Massuah Institute collection | b. Jakob Rosenberg, Massuah Institute collection | c. The Danube, near the town of Mohacs--WikiShare


9/2 From: Nahum Blumenkranz, Vilna, Lithuania To: Hedva Tzahar and Haim Fisch, Palestine

a. Members of Hanoar Hazioni, refugees from Poland, celebrate the seder: Vilna, 1940. Nahum Blumenkranz is seated first from the right. Massuah Institute collection. | b. Hedva Tzahar, Tzahar family collection, Tel Yitzhak


9/3 From: Chaim Asher Feld, Khakolabad Kolkhoz, Uzbekistan To: Haim Milstein, Giv'at Ha-ma'apilim, Herzliya, Palestine

a. Hanoar Hazioni activists (leadership), Bucharest, 1945 | b. propaganda poster for Soviet kolkhozes (collectives)--WikiShare


9/4 From: Baruch Hitta (Przenica), Cyprus To: Naftali Bielko (Tzahar), Tel Yitzhak

a. Hanoar Hazioni orchestra in Bedzin, Poland, before World War II. Naftali Tzahar, drums, is first on the right. Massuah Institute collection | b. Hanoar Hazioni managers convention in Ruda Opalin, 1933. Moshe Kol stand in the center third from right stands Naftali Tzahar. Massuah Institute collection | c. Naftali Tzahar, founder of the collection of Holocaust postal items at Massuah Institute.


9/5 From: David Berger and Mania, Vilna To: Else Gross, Ayanot

a. Akiva movement training group in Bielski, Poland, 1937. Else Gross is first on the right. Massuah Institute collection | b. David Berger, going-away party with members of the group that is about to emigrate to Palestine. Massuah Institute collection | c. Memorial for murdered Jews from Vilna and the vicinity, Ponar--WikiShare


9/6 From: Nissan Reznik, Vilna To: Moshe Kol, Tel Aviv

a. Comrades at the Pinsk branch, Moshe Kol (second from the right), Massuah Institute collection | b.Moshe Kol, counselor at the Pinsk branch (foreground, holding a trumpet), before the war. Massuah Institute collection | c. Nissan Reznik (standing, second row) with comrades at the Pinsk branch, before the war. Massuah Institute collection | D. Nissan Reznik, resistance fighter and partisan, after the war. Massuah Institute collection | E. Nissan Reznik's autobiography, Flickers from the Ashes


9/7 From: Shalom Zvuloni To: Misha Kolodny of the Hanoar Hazioni movement leadership in Palestine

a. Shalom Zvuloni participates in a seder. Hanoar Hazioni, Marijampole, Lithuania, 1940. | b. Reportage on the Italian bombardment of Tel Aviv, Davar, September 10, 1940


9/8 From: Zvi Zucker (Yavetz), Cyprus To: Haim Milstein of the Hanoar Hazioni leadership. Palestine

a. Youth camp in Cyprus, 1947. Zionist Archive collection, Jerusalem | b. Haim Milstein at Nitzanim, 1951. Massuah Institute collection | c. Prof. Zvi Yavetz (Zucker)--WikiShare


9/9 From: Milek Tauchner, Lodz To: Sum Goldstein

a. Hanoar Hazioni Bet in Konclowa. Third from right: Israel Sum, Massuah Institute collection | b. At meeting of Hanoar Hazioni directors, Poland, 1937. Fourth from right: Milek Tauchner. Massuah Institute collection | c. Hanoar Hazioni Board of Directors at Piwnice, Poland, 1937. Standing, second from left: Milek Tauchner.


9/10 From: Moshe S. Maria di Lauca To: Haim Milstein, Palestine

a. Villa Emma in Italy, where a group of Jewish children who had been smuggled out of the various places in Europe were concealed. Zionist Archive collection, Jerusalem | b. Haim Milstein at Nitzanim, 1941. Massuah Institute collection | c. Young Jewish displaced persons await transportation to the port in Naples, where they will board a ship to Palestine. July 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Public Domain | d. Nissan Reznik underground fighter and partisan, Massuah Institute collection




10. After the war

10/1 From: Solomon Glatt, St. Ottilien To: Attorney Benjamin Tomkiewicz in Palestine

a. Female prisoners evacuated from the Stutthof concentration camp eat their rations while on board a cargo ship in the Baltic Sea. April 28, 1945 - May 2, 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Instytut Pamieci Narodowej Copyright: Agency Agreement | b. An American soldier walks through the gates of the Kaufering I (Landsberg) concentration camp on the day of liberation, April 27, 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park public domain | c. The crematorium at Stutthoff concentration camp--WikiShare


10/2 From: Artek Kawler in Skolimow, near Warsaw To: Sanio Tannenbaum at Kibbutz Tel Yitzhak

a. Sanio (standing, at right) with his brother Fishko and his parents in Lwow, before the war. Massuah Institute collection | b. Prominent activists in Hanoar Hazioni at a conference in Kunclowa in 1938. Artek Kawler is standing there from the left. Massuah Institute collection | c. Hanoar Hazioni, summer counseling session in Mikuliczin, Poland, in 1938.. Artek Kawler, the group's counselor, the standing in the background. Massuah Institute collection


10/3 From: Sonia Zelikson of Vilna To: Hanoar Hazioni Executive Committee in Tel Aviv ב

a. Sonia Zelikson (on right) after the war, 1946. Massuah Institute collection | b. Tarbut school system poster--WikiShare


10/4 From: From Zeev (Wowek) Celnik, Bergen-Belsen 2 To: Rozio

a. Survivors in a barracks in Bergen-Belsen on liberation day, April 28, 1945. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park | b. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park Holocaust survivors in Bergen-Belsen DP Camp sign Palestine immigration papers, 1947


10/5 From: Halina Pomerancblum of writes from Wałbrzych, Poland To: Fredzia Mazia at Tel Yitzhak

a. Lola Pomerancblum As a Noar Zioni Member, Sosnowiez, 1936, Massuah Institute collection | b. Fredzia Mazia with Dr. moshe Beisky paricipating in Massuah's foundation ceremony , 1965,Massuah Institute Collection


10/6 From: Zenia Jakubowski, the Soviet interior To: parents in Slonim, Belarus

a. Correspondence room of the UNRRA Central Tracing Bureau, where typists write hundreds of letters daily in efforts to bring together families among the more than one million displaced persons still in western Europe. Jan 28, 1946 Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park | b. Bombed Warshaw, January 1945, WikiCommons | c. Slonim, Belarus, hometown of Zenia Jakubowski's parents--WikiShare Gutted synagogue in Slonim, Belarus, where Zenia Jakubowski's parents lived--WikiShare | d.Slonim, Belarus, hometown of Zenia Jakubowski's parents--WikiShare


10/7 From: George Grossman, Switzerland To: Alf Szwarcbaum, Lausanne, Switzerland

a. Hashomer Hatzair's youth mouvement survivors, on their way to Israel, Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park | b. Jewish orphans laugh during a performance at the Lindenfels Displaced Person center for children: April 21, 1948, Lindenfels, [Frankfurt am Main] Germany. Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park | c. Young Jewish displaced persons await transportation to the port in Naples, where they will board a ship to Palestine. July 10, 1945, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park


10/8 From: Shmuel Klein, Marie To: Leon Getzler, Haifa

a. Displaced Jews move their belongings enter the Krakow ghetto, c. 1940. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy Archiwum Panstwowe w Krakowie, public domain | b. Two German soldiers sit in a vandalized synagogue in Krakow, c. 1940. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy Muzeum Historii Fotografii Krakowskiego Towarzystwa Fotograficznego, public domain


10/9 From: Janke (Sarah) Szlafrok, Krakow To: Haim Milstein, Nitzanim

a.Haim Milstein at Nitzanim. Massuah Institute collection | b.Synagogue in Zamosc--WikiShare


10/10 From: Dola Widislawska, Memmingen, Germany To: Miriam, Tel Aviv

a. Two Jewish displaced persons at the DP camp in Wetzlar register to go to Palestine. The Jewish Relief Organization has made arrangements for the immigration of Jewish DP's to Palestine. At that time no men of military age were allowed to emigrate to Palestine. Sep 9 1948, Photographer: Hugh Palmer Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park Copyright: Public Domain | b. Ervins and Anna Apinis spent several years at the Memmingen Displaced Persons Camp in Germany after World War II. Ervins took this photograph from the room he and Anna shared, on the second floor of Block 4. Memmingen Displaced Persons Camp, Source: Museum Victoria, courtesy of the ApinisfFamily